Ethical Hacking: Hacking, Hacker & Cracker

ethical hacking

The term ‘Hacker’ was coined within the 1960s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to explain experts who used their skills to re-develop mainframe systems, increasing their efficiency and allowing them to multi-task. That said, not all hacking is bad. This brings us to the second sort of hacking: Ethical hacking.

Nowadays, the term routinely describes skilled programmers who gain unauthorized access into computer systems by exploiting weaknesses or using bugs, motivated either by malice or mischief. For instance, a hacker can create algorithms to crack passwords, penetrate networks, or maybe disrupt network services. With the increased popularity of the web and e-Commerce, malicious hacking became the foremost commonly known form. And the impact was reinforced by its depiction in various sorts of journalism and entertainment. As a rule, the first motive of malicious/unethical hacking involves stealing valuable information or financial gain.

That said, not all hacking is bad. This brings us to the second sort of hacking: Ethical hacking.

What is Hacking:

Hacking is that the activity of identifying weaknesses during a computing system or a network to take advantage of the safety to realize access to non-public data or business data. An example of computer hacking can be: employing a password cracking algorithm to realize access to a computing system.

Computers became mandatory to run successful businesses. It’s not enough to possess isolated computer systems; they have to be networked to promote communication with external businesses. This reveals them to the surface world and hacking. System hacking means using computers to perform fraudulent actions like fraud, privacy invasion, stealing corporate/personal data, etc. Cybercrimes cost many organizations many dollars each year. Businesses need to protect themselves against such attacks.

Who is Hacker:

ethical hacking

A hacker is a person who uses the computer, networking, or other skills to beat a technical problem. The term hacker may refer to anyone with technical skills. But it often refers to an individual who uses his or her abilities to realize unauthorized access to systems or networks so as to commit crimes. A hacker may, as an example, steal information to harm people via fraud, damage or bring down systems, and, often, hold those systems hostage to gather the ransom.

The term hacker has historically been a divisive one, sometimes getting used as a term of admiration for an individual. Thu, who exhibits a high degree of skill, also as creativity in his or her approach to technical problems. However, the term is more commonly applied to an individual who uses this skill for illegal or unethical purposes.

What is Ethical Hacking:

ethical hacking

Ethical Hacking is a certified practice of bypassing system security to identify potential data infringements and threats during a network. The corporate that maintains the system or network allows Cyber Security engineers to perform such activities. So, as to check the system’s defenses. Thus, unlike malicious hacking, this process is designed, approved, and more importantly, legal.

Ethical hackers try to analyze the system or network for weak points that malicious hackers can utilize or destroy. Thus, They collect and analyze the information to work out ways to strengthen the safety of the system/network/applications. By doing so, they will improve the safety footprint in order that it can better endure attacks or distract them.

Ethical hackers hire by organizations to seem into the vulnerabilities of their systems. And networks and develop solutions to stop data infringements. Consider it a high-tech transformation of the old saying “It takes a thief to catch a thief.”

They check for key vulnerabilities that include but not limits to:

  • Injection attacks
  • Changes in security settings
  • Exposure of sensitive data
  • Breach in authentication protocols
  • Components utilized in the system or network will use as entrance points

Now, as you’ve got a thought of what’s ethical hacking, it is time to learn the type of hackers.

Types of Hackers:

The security community informally uses references to hat color as to how different types of hackers identify. Hence, usually divided into three types: white hat, black hat, and grey hat.

White hat hackers:

ethical hacking

also referred to as ethical hackers, strive to work within the public’s best interest, instead of make turbulence. Many white hat hackers work doing penetration testing, hired to aim to interrupt into the company’s networks to seek out and report on security vulnerabilities. the safety firms then help their customers mitigate security issues before criminal hackers can exploit them.

Black hat hackers:

intentionally gain unauthorized access to networks and systems with malicious intent, whether to steal data, spread malware or take advantage of ransomware, vandalize or otherwise damage systems, or for the other reason — including gaining notoriety. Black hat hackers are criminals by definition because they violate laws against accessing systems without authorization, but they’ll also engage in other criminality, including fraud and distributed denial-of-service attacks.

Gray hat hackers:

fall someplace between white hat hackers and black hat hackers. While their motives could also be almost like those of white hat hackers, gray hats are more likely than white hat hackers to access systems without authorization; at an equivalent time, they’re more likely than black hat hackers to avoid doing unnecessary damage to the systems they hack. Although they not typically – or only – motivates by money, gray hat hackers may offer to fix vulnerabilities they need identified through their own, unofficial, activities instead of using their knowledge to take advantage of vulnerabilities for illegal profit.

The other ways to draw a distinction between White Hat and Black Hat hackers include:

Techniques Used:

White Hat hackers duplicate the techniques and methods obeyed by malicious hackers to seek out the system discrepancies, replicating all the latter’s steps to seek out out how a system attack occurred or may occur. Hence, If they find a weak point within the system or network, they report it immediately and fix the flaw.


Even though White Hat hacking follows equivalent techniques and methods as Black Hat hacking, just one is legally acceptable. Black Hat hackers break the law by penetrating systems without approval.


White Hat hackers are employed by organizations to penetrate their systems and detect security issues. Black hat hackers neither own the system nor work for somebody who owns it.

After understanding what’s ethical hacking, the types of ethical hackers, and knowing the difference between white-hat and black-hat hackers, let’s have a glance at the ethical hacker roles and responsibilities.

Roles and Responsibilities of an Ethical Hacker:

Ethical Hackers must follow certain guidelines so as to perform hacking legally. an honest hacker knows his or her responsibility and adheres to all or any of the ethical guidelines. Here are the foremost important rules of Ethical Hacking:

  • An ethical hacker must seek permission from the organization that owns the system. Hackers should take complete approval before performing any security assessment on the system or network.
  • Determine the scope of their assessment and expose their plan to the organization.
  • Report any security breaches and vulnerabilities found within the system or network.
  • Keep their discoveries secret. As their purpose is to secure the system or network, ethical hackers should agree to and respect their non-disclosure contract.
  • Erase all traces of the hack after examining the system for any vulnerability. It stops malicious hackers from entering the system through the identified loopholes.

Benefits of Ethical Hacking:

Learning ethical hacking involves studying the mindset and methods of black hat hackers and testers to find out the way to identify and proper vulnerabilities within networks. Hence, Studying ethical hacking is usually applied by security pros across industries and in a multitude of sectors. This sphere includes network protectors, risk management, and quality assurance tester.

However, the foremost obvious advantage of learning ethical hacking is its potential to tell and improve and defend corporate networks. the first threat to any organization’s security may be a hacker: learning, understanding, and implementing how hackers operate can help network defenders prioritize potential risks and find out how to remediate them best. Additionally, getting ethical hacking training or certifications can benefit those that are seeking a new role within the security realm or those eager to demonstrate skills and quality to their organization.

Skills Required to Become an Ethical Hacker:

An ethical hacker should have in-depth knowledge about all the systems, networks, program codes, security measures, etc. to offer to hack efficiently. a number of these skills include:

  • Knowledge of programming – it requires security professionals working within the field of application security and Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
  • Scripting knowledge – this often requires professionals dealing with network-based attacks and host-based attacks.
  • Networking skills – This skill is vital because threats mostly originate from networks. You ought to realize all of the devices present within the network, how they connect, and the way to spot if they compromise.
  • Understanding of databases – Attacks mostly target databases. Knowledge of database management systems like SQL will assist you to effectively inspect operations carried out in databases.
  • Knowledge of various platforms like Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.
  • The ability to figure out different hacking tools available within the market.
  • Knowledge of search engines and servers.

Hacker vs. cracker:

The term hacker first utilized in the 1960s to explain a programmer or an individual who, in an era of highly constrained computer capabilities, could increase the efficiency of computer code in a way that removed, or “hacked,” excess machine-code instructions from a program. It evolves over the years to ask an individual with a complicated understanding of computers, networking, programming, or hardware.

For many in technology, the term hacker best applies to those that use their skills without malicious intent, but over time the term has applied to people that use their skills maliciously. To counter the aim of labeling skillful technologists as criminals, the term cracker proposed for criminal hackers, to remove the stigma from labeling a hacker.

Within the hacker-cracker framework, hackers are those that seek to spot flaws in security systems and work to enhance them, including security experts tasked with locating and identifying flaws in systems and fixing those vulnerabilities. Crackers, on the opposite hand, are bent breaching computer and network security to take advantage of those self-same flaws for their own gain.

While technologists have promoted the utilization of the term cracker over the years, the excellence between differently motivated hackers is more commonly referenced by the utilization of a white hat, gray hat, or black hat. generally use, the cracker hasn’t found much traction.

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