Sultan Alauddin Kaikobad ( kayqubad ) & Seljuke Empire

Sultan Alauddin

Kaikobad I or Alaud’s Cubad bin Kikwas (Persian: ءعلادین کیقباد بن کیکاوس Turkish Turkish: I. Sultan Alauddin’s Cubad, 1188–1237) was the Seljuk Sultan of Rama. Who ruled from 1220 to 1237. It extended the Sultanate’s borders at the expense of its neighbors. Especially mangosteen balek and aubergines. And with the presence of Ceylon in the Mediterranean, they captured the port of Cullen Oros. Elijah was later renamed in his honor. The Sultan Alauddin, sometimes styled “Keikoabad Great”, is remembered today for his outstanding architectural legacy. And court culture. Which flourished during his reign.

The Seljuq power represented in the Keikobad period. And affected Anatolia. And Keiko itself was considered inhabited. He was the most famous prince of the royal family. During the post-Mongol period in the mid-13th century. Anatolians often see this period as the Golden Age. When the new rulers of Anatolia found out. So they justified their authority. Paddy tracked it.

Biography of Sultan Alauddin:

Kaikobad was the second son of Sultan Khekhsru I. Which gave him the title of country at an early age. And he got the governorship of the important central Anatolian town of Tokat.

When the Sultan died in 1211 after the Battle of Ala Hir. Kaiqobad and his elder brother, Kakas, both fought for the throne. Initially, Kaikobad had some allies in the Sultan’s neighboring countries. Laila I, king of Silesian Armenia, and Taghir Shah, uncle of the brothers and independent ruler of Arizora.

As the strongholds of the empire, most of the aristocracy supported the Caucasus. Kaiqobad had to flee to Ankara Fortress. Where he sought help from the Turkmen tribes of Kistanamonu. He was soon taken into custody. And imprisoned by his brother in a castle in western Anatolia. Kikas died unexpectedly in 1219 (or 1220). Released from captivity, Kikhabad succeeded to the throne of Sultan.
In 1227/1228, Kaikobad entered Anatolia. Where was the arrival of Jalaluddin Mangbarno, That was fleeing from the destruction of his Khwarazmin empire by the Mongols. It created an unstable political situation. The Sultan settled the Turkomans along the border of the Torres Mountains. Later he wrote a region called lateral. At the end of the 13th century, these Turkmen established the Kramenians.

Sultan Alauddin defeated the Artuqids and the Ayyubids

The Sultan defeated Artiquid and Ayubids. And absorbed the Mangojic Emirate into the Empire. With his march, he captured the forts of Hessen Mansour, Kehta, and Amagic. He also rejected the revolt of the Empire Tree Bizand. And, although he failed to capture their capital, he forced the Caminos family to renew their vows.

Earlier, Kaikobad tried to form an alliance with his Turkish cousin Jalaluddin Mangbarno against the Mongol threat but failed. And after that, Jalaluddin took an important fort in qualification. In the end, Kaikobad defeated him. In 1230, he fought in the battle of Yasmin between Sivas and Erzincan.

After his conquest, he moved further east. Established Seljuk rule over the area of Erzurum, Ahlit, and Lake Van (formerly part of the Abyssinia). Diyarbakir and the Artidids of the Abyssinians of Syria recognized his sovereignty.

He also captured several forts in Georgia. Whose queen claimed peace. And he married his daughter Tamer to Kaikobasani, the son of Kaikobad. The Romans keep in mind the growing presence and power of the Mongols on the Sultan’s borders. It strengthened defenses and fortifications in its eastern provinces. He died at a young age in 1237 in his last line to die in freedom.

Family of Sultan Alauddin:

Kaikobad had three sons: Kikhasras II, the eldest, and Sultan Alauddin kaikobad wife who was the Daughter of Mahi Khatun. And further, ‘Izz al-Din and Rukn al-Din Yin were the sons of Ghazia Khatun, the wife of his Ayubian princess. Kekabad had in fact pledged allegiance to his son Izzat-ud-Din. But Aamir generally preferred the rally. Behind the more powerful Khusrau.

Without a clear successor, Kaikobad’s death sparked controversy among various groups.

Sultan Alauddin’s Reign:

Following these conquests, Alauddin defeated Saladin Mangubri in the Battle of Jesse Mini in 1230 AD. And further eastward. And took Airzrum, Qualification, and Lake Van. But this considers a mistake. Because after this war, the Mongols opened the way to enter Anatolia. So, they attacked Sivas under the command of the German Nobhia. And destroyed the region. When Allauddin found out. The attack supported by Georgian Queen Rusden. He invaded Georgia. He conquered many forts there. But the queen demanded peace. And married his daughter, Tamar Gerko Hatton, to Aladdin’s son, Kekhosrao II. He was aware of the growing power of the Mongols. In this way, he strengthened the borders of Anatolia by strengthening the eastern borders.

Sultan Alauddin Kaiqobad I saved Anatolia from Mongol invasion before his death in 1237. He had good relations with both Muslims and non-Muslims. It was as if I had just returned from a battle of wits. Christians welcomed their priests and their imams along with Muslims. With great generosity, they also gave him gifts and donations. He was also given the title of “Ulag-Sultan”.

Seljuq Empire:

Turks migrated from Central Asia during the tenth century. And a group of nomadic tribes came from southeastern Russia. It headed by a chief named Seljuq. The headwaters are located in the lower reaches of the Jakarta’s River. And later it became the Sunni form of Islam. He participated in the Samirna Border Defense Force. And later Mahmoud Ghazni. Seljuq’s two grandchildren, the Chagrin bag and the Toglol bag. There was a list of Persian helpers to win their constituencies. Chagrin is controlled by most of Khorsin and Toghiral. On his death in 1063, he remained head of an empire. These included western Iran and Mesopotamia.

Under the sultans, Alp Arsalan and Malik Shah Seljuq Empire expanded. To include Palestine, Iran and Mesopotamia, and Syria. In 1071, Alp Arslan defeated a large Byzantine army at Manzikart. And captured the Byzantine emperor Romans IV Diagnosis. The way was open for Turkmen tribes to settle in Asia Minor.

The Seljuq Empire failed to stem the rise of the Nazarene Ismailis. There was an idea of a Shiite sect. That he held responsible for the assassination of Wazir Naeem-ul-Mulk in 1092. More importantly. That is, the Seljuk process of dividing the provinces gave a good idea of this empire. Among the sons of a slain ruler. Thus many independent and unstable Rajasthan created. There was an internal struggle for power.

The last of the Iranian Seljuqs died on the battlefield in 1194. And by 1200 the Seljuk power was gone everywhere except Anatolia.

Expansion of Seljuke:

After a six-year interregnum Sulaymān’s second son Qïlïch Arslān, released from captivity after the death of Malik-Shāh, finally was ready to repossess İznik in 1092 then gradually to regain control of his father’s dominions. Four years later western European crusaders, responding to the decision of Pope Urban II to liberate the Palestine , entered Anatolia on their thanks to Jerusalem. After dispersing the ragtag army of the People’s Crusade, Qïlïch Arslān was defeated by the forces of the primary Crusade at İznik and again at Dorylaeum (Eskişehir) in 1097 and driven back onto the Anatolian plateau. There he regrouped and established a capital at Konya, a city that might remain the principal Seljuq centre until the top of the dynasty at the start of the 14th century. within the wake of the crusader triumph, the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus (ruled 1081–1118) again subjugated the western regions of Anatolia. In alliance together with his major Turkmen rival Malik Dānishmend Ghāzī, Qïlïch Arslān I continued to struggle against the crusaders, but, when Malik Dānishmend Ghāzī died in 1104, he revived his father’s policy of expansion eastward. After taking Mosul in 1107, he engaged the forces of the good Seljuq sultan Muḥammad Tapar, son of Malik-Shāh, but was drowned within the Khābūr River. This clash, the last encounter of the Iran-based Great Seljuqs with the descendants of Qutalmïsh, limited the ambitions and therefore the sphere of influence of the latter to Anatolia.

Qïlïch Arslān I’s real political heir was his son Rukn al-Dīn Masʿūd I. He seized Konya in 1116 with the assistance of his father-in-law Amīr Ghāzī Gümüshtegin Dānishmend, who had come to power after the death of his father Malik Dānishmend Ghāzī. During his nearly 40-year rule Rukn al-Dīn Masʿūd held back the Byzantines while patiently expanding his territories at the expense of his crusader, Dānishmendid, and other Muslim neighbours. When the Dānishmendids broke into warring factions after 1142, Rukn al-Dīn Masʿūd began to soak up their holdings and commenced the important development of Konya as a capital city. By the time of his death in 1155, the Seljuq state had become the dominant power in central and eastern Anatolia.

Rukn al-Dīn Masʿūd’s son ʿIzz al-Dīn Qïlïch Arslān II (1155–92), who ruled nearly as long as his father, is taken into account one among the foremost important of the Anatolian Seljuq sultans. He first concluded an alliance with the Byzantines to free his hand in handling the remnants of the Dānishmendids, and he was ready to seize all their territories in 1174 after the death of their protector Nureddin, the counter-crusading strongman of Syria. Qïlïch Arslān II then crushed his erstwhile Byzantine allies under the emperor Manuel Comnenus at the Battle of Myriocephalon on Citizenship Day , 1176. This defeat, which occurred only slightly quite a century after the Battle of Manzikert, marked the top of Byzantine aspirations to reconquer Anatolia and therefore the rise of the Seljuqs to total ascendancy there. Qïlïch Arslān’s victory can also have won him the popularity of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs in Baghdad, for he began to mint coins bearing the name of al-Mustaḍīʾ (1170–80).

In accordance with the notion of corporate rule prevalent in many Turkish states—which held that each one male members of the dynasty shared equally within the sovereignty—about 1186 the aging sultan appanaged his realm among his 10 sons, a brother, and a nephew. The political rivalries and disunity produced by this measure among the Seljuq princes, including the irruption of the Frankish warriors of the Third Crusade , who occupied Konya in 1190, temporarily brought an end to the expansion of the state and seemed to nullify the achievement of ʿIzz al-Dīn Qïlïch Arslān II. things was further complicated by the founding in 1198 of the dominion of Cilician Armenia by refugees from the frontier and therefore the population that had been resettled there by the Byzantines. Occasionally allied with the crusaders and later with the Mongols, the Cilician kings were frequently at odds with their Turkmen neighbours. In 1194 the Anatolian Seljuqs finally became the only representatives of the dynasty after the death of the last Great Seljuq sultan in Iran.

The Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204 destroyed the unity of the Byzantine Empire for several decades and created a patchwork of Greek principalities, a number of which were allied with the Seljuqs against the crusaders. Qïlïch Arslān’s son by a Byzantine princess, Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw I (Kaikhosrau; 1192–96, 1205–11), seized Konya in 1205 with the help of the Greek lord Maurozomes and therefore the frontier Turkmens. Under this ruler and his two sons and successors, ʿIzz al-Dīn Kāʾūs I (1211–20) and ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh(Sultan Alauddin) I (1220–37), the Anatolian Seljuqs achieved the zenith of their power. Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw I reunified the Seljuq state and commenced to expand at the expense of what was left of the Byzantine Empire within the west and north. His most vital achievements included the capture of the harbour of Antalya (Attalia) on the Mediterranean coast in 1207 and therefore the conclusion of economic treaties with the Italians. Thereafter the Seljuqs were not limited to the inside of the Anatolian plateau, a fact of great economic also as political significance. Kay-Khusraw i used to be killed in 1211 after a battle with the Greek Theodore I Lascaris, founding father of the Nicaean Empire and enemy of Maurozomes. His eldest son, ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay-Kāʾūs I, first made peace with Theodore then went on the offensive, taking Sinop in 1214 and thus giving the Seljuqs a maritime outlet on the Black Sea . At this point he also compelled the Greek ruler of Trebizond (Trabzon) to simply accept Seljuq overlordship. ʿIzz al-Dīn also subjugated Cilician Armenia, but he wasn’t as successful in his efforts to dominate the Ayyūbid descendants of the good Muslim hero Saladin in Syria and was forced to withdraw from Aleppo in 1218.

ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh (Sultan Alauddin) ( I built on the accomplishments of his father and brother. From 1221 to 1225 he conquered most of the Mediterranean littoral up to the frontiers of Syria. Following these victories, he launched an expeditionary force across the Black Sea against Crimea, parts of which remained in Seljuq hands until 1239. within the east he annexed territory seized from the Turkmen Mangūjakids and Artuqids. These triumphs brought him into conflict with the Khwārazmian adventurer Jalāl al-Dīn Mingburnu out of eastern Iran by the Mongols of Genghis Khan . Unsuccessful in his attempts to resist the Central Asian conqueror, Jalāl al-Dīn had haunted the lifetime of a freebooter fighting against the Muslim rulers of Iran, Anatolia, and Syria. In 1230 he took Ahlat from the Ayyūbids after a brutal siege and was on the verge of attacking eastern Anatolia when his forces were routed west of Erzincan by a combined Seljuq-Ayyūbid army. He fled to Diyarbakır, where he died subsequent year. After this victory ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ousted the Seljuq prince of Erzurum and conquered the Lake Van area, pushing the borders of the Anatolia Seljuq state up to the old eastern frontiers of the Byzantine Empire . He then successfully defended these new acquisitions by repelling a huge Ayyūbid invasion in 1233. By the time ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn died in 1237, Mongol reconnoitrers had already begun to probe the borders of his realm, very much like the Turkmens had tested the Byzantine marches two centuries earlier.

During the primary four decades of the 13th century, the Anatolian Seljuq sultanate emerged together of the foremost important Muslim states of the age. Its government, almost like that of the good Seljuqs, was inspired by Iranian concepts of centralized authority and was largely staffed by Iranian bureaucrats who used Persian because the language of administration. Turkmen tribesmen formed the main arm of the military, but they were sometimes counterbalanced by a servile or conscript bodyguard loyal only to the Sultan Alauddin. The tribes dwelling within the Byzantine borderlands (uj) were led by local chieftains (uj beyleri) who were, by and enormous , loyal to their Seljuq overlords. within the later 13th century, however, the foremost powerful march wardens became more independent in conducting military operations against the Byzantines and in intervening in disputes within the Seljuq capital.

The sedentary population over which the Seljuqs ruled was extremely heterogeneous and included large numbers of both Armenian and Greek Christians, most of whom were engaged in agriculture. within the towns and cities, Muslim artisans and craftsmen were often linked to other elements in society through membership in ethical and chivalric organizations referred to as futūwa. Though there have been sometimes violent rivalries among competing futūwa leaders, these groups were generally a source of stability in urban society and sometimes influenced the course of political events. After his conquest of Sinop, ʿIzz al-Dīn Kay-Kāʾūs I himself had been initiated into one among these organizations by the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Nāṣir.

Commerce was also a crucial component of the Anatolian Seljuq economy. The Crusades had created a requirement for eastern luxury goods in Europe, and therefore the sultans and their administrators showed great interest in promoting trade. They first secured political control of the main east-west and north-south routes crossing their territories then built up the infrastructure of commerce. Between 1201 and 1243, for instance , nearly 30 fortified rest houses (kārvānsarāī or khān) were erected along the Anatolian high roads for the protection of traveling merchants. Other fortifications, bridges, and harbours were constructed, many of which are still extant. With the immense wealth derived from these policies, the rulers not only built palaces and tombs for themselves but also founded mosques, seminaries, and other religious centres, both as monuments to their piety and as vehicles for the Islamization of their non-Muslim subjects. additionally to architects they patronized historians like Rawandī (flourished c. 1206) and Ibn Bībī (flourished c. 1285), thinkers like al-Suhrawardī, Ibn al-ʿArabī, and Ṣadr al-Dīn Qūnawī, and Persian- and Turkish-language poets like Yunus Emre, ʿIrāqī, and Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī, known by his title mawlānā (“our master”), authored the huge mystical poem Mas̄navī-ye Maʿnavi (“Spiritual Couplets”), a classic of Persian literature sometimes designated “the Persian Qurʾān.” He also established the Mawlawiyyah (Mevleviyah) mystical order, whose members utilized music and dance to realize spiritual states and were thus called “whirling dervishes.” The Mawlawiyyah and other religious orders were doubtless simpler in spreading Islam in Anatolia than the sultans’ pious foundations. In any event, it’s certainly true that the religious and cultural foundations of the fashionable state of Turkey were laid in Seljuq times.

ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh(Sultan Alauddin) was succeeded by his eldest son Ghiyās̄ al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw II (1237–46), who reached the throne by killing his two half brothers and their Ayyūbid mother along side many military commanders and dignitaries. Although he initially obtained some successes within the southeastern a part of his realm by annexing Amida (Diyarbakır), thus pushing the boundaries of the Anatolian Seljuq state up to those of recent Turkey, he faced two severe challenges to his rule. the primary was the Bābāʾī rebellion, a three-year religio-political uprising led by the favored preacher Bābā Isḥāq that broke call at 1239 among the Turkmens in southeastern and central Anatolia. After finally quelling this revolt, he was faced by a much more dangerous threat because the Mongols steadily bore down upon the region, taking Erzurum in 1242. In 1243 Kay-Khusraw II was crushed by the Mongol commander Bayjū at Köse Dağ between Sivas and Erzincan, and therefore the Anatolian Seljuqs passed under Mongol suzerainty as vassals. Kay-Khusraw II fled to Antalya, leaving his minister to return to terms with the Mongols. Cilician Armenia transferred its loyalty to the Mongols, and Turkmen revolts broke out along the western frontiers.

Byzantine frontier:

Alp Arslan conquered Manzikart in 1071. It opened the Byzantine front for the Oz tribes. And they soon established themselves. As a mercenary in the Byzantine local struggle. His job with rival Byzantine generals was to hope for the throne of Constantinople (now Istanbul). It gave them a growing influence. And gradually they took control of Anatolia. Assumed control as an ally of the Byzantine emperor. They were taken by the Crusaders to the interior of Anatolia in 1097. In the West, there was an ambush between the Byzantine Greeks. And in the east by the Crusaders in Syria. The Seljuq Turks organized the Anatolian domain as the Sultan of Ram.

Although its population included Christians, Armenians, Greeks, Syrians, and Iranian Muslims. And Ram was considered “Turkey” by his contemporaries. Trade, agriculture, and the arts thrive in the state. Where races tolerate. And religions have played an important role in peace and stability.

Iran’s war against the Kharazm Shah dynasty began in 1230. Through Ram Sultan Al-Kay on Al-Qin Qab-Hud (Kaikobad), I finally clashed with the power of Ram and Seljuk. Khorezmian buffer means loss of state. That is when the invading Mongols reached the eastern borders of Turkey. The Seljuks could not stop them. In 1243, the battle of Kos Dag took place. Seljuk’s sovereignty was lost forever. For a time, the Seljuq Empire continued as a Mongol province. Although the Turkmen aristocracy has maintained its small states in remote mountainous districts. The Seljuq dynasty came to an end in the early 14th century.

Sultan Alauddin’s Death(death of sultan alauddin kaikobad in ertugrul):

This is a short brief about how sultan alauddin kaikobad died in ertugrul: Sultan Alauddin Kaikobad died in Caesarea on May 31, 1237. Rumors circulated in honor of foreign ambassadors on the occasion of Eid. That his son, Jayasiden Kahsrio Domas, poisoned him and became the next sultan. Unexpectedly, he was buried in the Alauddin Mosque in Konya. Alauddin Kaikobad I was killed. However, at the invitation of Zahras, he gave it to Caesarea in 1232. He was buried in a tomb called “Kabrabane”. That was built by Sultan Mesud (1116-57) on Alauddin hill.

When the Sultan died in 1211 after the Battle of Ala Hir. Hence, Kaiqobad and his elder brother, Kakas, both fought for the throne. After 1320 he became ill so his sons kept fighting. Therefore, many cities captured by the Byzantines. He died of gout at the age of 68 in Sugot. Hence, buried in Bursa. During his reign, he first married Mil Haton. She gave birth to a son, Orhan Ghazi. Who later became the next Sultan.

Architectural and cultural legacy:

He ordered most of the buildings during his tenure. Can still be seen in Anatolia today. Like the Alauddin Mosque in the middle of Konya. Next to Fort Ngade, Uni (Antar) Minar Mosque Antalya. Kobinabad Palace in Besihar, etc. In most cases, Sultan Caravanserai is one of them.

During his reign, he brought the Seljuk Empire to its last days. At that time trade and science were given great importance. Anatolia and Sinop became important ports for the expansion of the empire. And the navy and the trade were prepared. He invited many intellectuals. And the artist of his court, including Maulana Rumi.

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