Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. He was born on 14th February A.D. 1483 in Ferghana. His father Umar Shaikh Mirza was the ruler of Forghana.
He descended from two Central Asian warriors; Timur. Although, the Turkish hero from his father’s side. And Changez Khan, the great Mongol hero from his mother’s side. Therefore, the blood of two great Hero’s of Central Asia was flowing in his veins. That made Babur bold and courageous. He had a proud feeling. Because of being the successor of his two great ancestors. Hence he had the ferocity of a Mongol. And the courage and ability of a Turk. His family belonged to the Chagatai section of the Turkish race. But he was commonly known as “Mughal”.
Zahiruddin Baber: The throne of Forghana:
Forghana was a small state in Transoxiana (now a part of Turkistan). There was a constant danger to Forghana. Hence, as his father was not in good terms. Further, with his brother Ahmad Mirza. The ruler of Samarkand and Bukhara, and his brothers-in-law, Mahmoud Khan and Ahmed. And, the rulers of Tashkent Sairemns Shahrukhin. In 1494, his father died in an accident. And, Babur at the young age of 11 years succeeded in Ferghana. This was in-fact a critical situation for him. Although, as the Timurid Princes were busy fighting one another.
Zahiruddin Baber: Conquest of Samarkand
Zahiruddin Babur thought was a small boy could understand Central Asian politics better. Hence, than any young boy of his age as above. He also had adequate military training. However, and acquired experience of administration, war, and diplomacy. Between 1494 and 1504, he had to struggle hard. To strengthen his position in Central Asia. He, too, made a bid to conquer Samarkand from his uncle. He won the city twice but lost it in no time on both occasions. The second time the Uzbek Chief. Sahabani Khan defeated Babur. And conquered Samarkand.
This forced Babur to move towards Kabul. Hence, which he conquered in 1504. For the next 14 years, Babur kept himself busy. For the conquest of the homeland from the Uzbeks. In 1511, he won Samarkand’s third time. By defeating Sahabani khan. But within a year Shahabani’s nephew Ubaidullah Khan defeated Babur. And forced him to leave Samarkand. Babur returned to Kabul. Hence, leaving all hopes on Central Asia. These developments finally forced Babur to look towards India.
Zahiruddin Baber: Conquest of India
Babur (1483-1530) whose original name was Zahir-ud-Din Mohammad. Which came to be known by his pet name ‘Babur’. However, a Turkish word which means a tiger. He belonged to Farghana. Although, a small Kingdom in Central Asia.
From 1519 to 1524, he led four expeditions to India. But without any significant results. His fifth invasion which marked his success. Completely changed the political history of India. It had far-reaching consequences.
The battle of Panipat made him virtually the ruler of entire India. A struggle for political supremacy. However, among several warring powers in India was going on. Babur who had the ambition to rule India. Hence, fully realized. That, this condition, and decided to try his luck.
Zahiruddin Baber: Conquest of Panipat
In 1526, after the fall of the sayyids, the Afghan Lodi dynasty had seized power in Delhi. The power of the sultanate had decreased considerably. At this time, though the sultan could still command significant resources. Ibrahim Lodi, the third ruler was unpopular with the nobility. For his persecution and execution of a large number of old nobles.
A prominent noble, Daulat khan fearing for his life appealed to Zahir-ud-din Babur. The Timurid ruler of Kabul to come and depose Ibrahim Lodi. It thought that Babur would defeat Lodi, plunder, and leave. Babur however had different ideas.
Zahiruddin Baber: The Battle Of Khanwa
After winning the Panipat battle, Zahiruddin Babur turned his attention to Rana Sanga. The formidable Rajput king. On 16 March 1527, the armies of Babur and Rana Sanga fought. however, against each other in the battle of Khanwa. Once again the Canons and Guns of Babur wreaked havoc in the opposition camp. The Rajputs under Rana Sanga defeated. And Babur became the undisputed ruler of India. In fact, winning the battle of Khanwa was more important for Babur, than the battle of Panipat. Khanwa is about 60 km west of Agra. The epic battle between the Mughals and the Rajputs fought here. The weakness of the Delhi Empire and the quarrels of the Afghan nobles had indirectly strengthened Sanga. By giving him an opportunity of developing his power unhindered. His military forces exceeded those of any other prince of his time.
Zahiruddin Babur died on December 26, 1530. At a six month stay at Sambhal in 1530. Hence, Babur’s son Humayun fell gravely ill. When he became critical he brought to Agra. Where all the physicians of the city could not help him improve. It was suggested that great charity should be made. So that Humayun may get better.
It decided to give away the Kohinoor diamond. But Babur objected to this saying. That the Kohinoor belonged to his son. And was thus not a sacrifice.
He said that his life was alone. The most precious thing that he could give away. And thus prayed to Allah to take his life instead of his son.
Miraculously, with the passage of time, his son’s health started improving. While his own health started deteriorating; finally resulting in death.
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